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Grain treatment with ozone

 

Primary benefits of ozone
· does not damage grain
· easy to implement ozone
· destroys micotoxins
· stops mold growth
· environmentally friendly (green) alternative
· works as fumigant and insecticide
 
Aflatoxin reduction in grains
 
Aflatoxin in a toxin created by a specific mold that can grow in the field prior to
harvesting crops, most commonly we see this occurring in corn during wet
years. High levels of avlotoxin in grain are not allowed for human
consumption or use in some animal feeds. This can dramatically lower the
value of your crop, especially if that crop is corn, as most corn is used for
consumption by humans or animals.
 
Ozone has the ability to oxidize and break down aflatoxin in grains.
Due to the fact that aflotoxin is a result of mold that is most likely not present
anymore in your grain, when the aflotoxin levels are reduced to acceptable
levels they will stay at those levels and not rebound. While it is challenging to
eliminate 100% of the aflotoxin in grains, reducing the level to normal, and
safe levels is very reasonable.
 
Ozone as a fungacidal and aflatoxin reduction in peanuts
Peanut contamination by fungi is a concern of processors and consumers
owing to the association of these micro-organisms with quality deterioration
and aflatoxin production. In this study the fungicidal and detoxifying effects of
ozone on aflatoxins in peanuts was investigated. Peanut kernels were
ozonated at concentrations of 13 and 21 mg L?¹ for periods of 0, 24, 48, 72
and 96 h.
 
Ozone was effective in controlling total fungi and potentially aflatoxigenic
species in peanuts, with a reduction in colony-forming units per gram greater
than 3 log cycles at the concentration of 21 mg L?¹ after 96 h of exposure. A
reduction in the percentage of peanuts with internal fungal populations was
also observed, particularly after exposure to ozone at 21 mg L?¹. A reduction
in the concentrations of total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 of approximately 30
and 25% respectively was observed for kernels exposed to ozone at 21 mg
L?¹ for 96 h.
It was concluded that ozone is an important alternative for peanut
detoxification because it is effective in controlling potentially aflatoxigenic
fungi and also acts in the reduction of aflatoxin levels in kernels
 
Ozone removes aflatoxon in red pepper
Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) is one of the most important agricultural
products of Turkey. For public health and export requirements, red pepper
must be produced free of hazardous contaminants. However, previous
investigations showed that red pepper could be contaminated by aflatoxin
above the limits that may be critical for health. In this study, use of the high
oxidising power of ozone achieved detoxification of aflatoxin. Samples were
subjected to ozonation at various ozone concentrations (16, 33, 66 mg/l) and
exposure times (7.5, 15, 30, 60 min). In summary, the reductions of content of
aflatoxin B 1 in flaked and chopped red peppers were 80% and 93% after
exposures to 33 mg/l ozone and 66 mg/l ozone for 60 min, respectively.
 
Ozone used for reduction of aflatoxin in corn
Highlights
AFB 1 in corn could be efficiently degraded by ozone.
The toxicity of the ozone-treated ACC was evaluated by the HepG2 cell
line.
Ozonation is an effective, fast and safe method for AFB 1 degradation in
ACC.
This paper studies the ozone treatment effect on degradation of aflatoxin B 1
(AFB 1 ) in corn with different moisture content (MC). The toxicity of the
degradation products (DPs) of the ozone-treated AFB 1 -Contaminated Corn
(ACC) was also evaluated using the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line
(HepG2) as model cells. The degradation rate of AFB 1 in corn increases with
ozone concentration and treatment time. The results showed that ACC with
13.47% MC was easier to be degraded by ozone than with 20.37% MC.
Treated with 90 mg L −1 ozone for 20 min and 40 min, AFB 1 in corn with
13.47% MC decreased from 83 μg kg −1 to 18.12 μg kg −1 and 9.9 μg kg −1 ,
respectively, well meeting the China National Standard of AFB 1 in corn
(20 μg kg −1 ). In order to evaluate the safety of ozone used on ACC, the
impacts of AFB 1 as well as untreated and ozone-treated ACC with the same
level of AFB 1 content on HepG2’s survival rate, morphology, and apoptosis
were studied. The results showed that ACC had high cell toxicity while the
toxicity of ozone-treated ACC had no significant difference with that of the
AFB 1 -free culture solution. It is concluded that ozonation can quickly and
effectively degrade AFB 1 in corn and diminish ACC’s toxicity, and therefore,
ozonation is expected to be an effective, fast, and safe method for AFB 1
degradation in ACC.
 
Ozone gas used for anti-aflatoxin for wheat
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important agricultural crops.
Egypt has one of the highest wheat per capita consumption levels in the world
(108 kg/person/year).Wheat must be produced free of hazardous
contaminants. However, previous investigations showed that wheat could be
contaminated by aflatoxins above the limits that may be critical for health. In
post-harvest situations, crop spoilage, fungal growth, and mycotoxin formation
result from the interaction of several factors in the storage environment.
In this study, use of ozone gas achieved as an anti-aflatoxin B1 in wheat
grains during storage. Wheat samples were artificially infected with spores
count of Aspergillus flavus ATCC 28542 strain (105, 104, 103,102 and 101
spores/kg) and ozonation at 20 and 40 ppm ozone gas for 5, 10, 15 and 20
min at room temperature.
We not observed any amount of AFB1 in wheat samples were ozonation for
10, 15 and 20 min with spores count of Aspergillus flavus strain 105 to 101
(spores/kg), But AFB1 was formed in samples treated for 5 min at 20 and 40
ppm ozone gas with artificially infected spores count 105 and 104 (spores/kg)
solely. While 5 min of exposure to ozone gas were sufficient inhibition
production of AFB1 with the number of spores fewer than 104 spores/kg.
 
Insect control in grains
Using ozone as a fumigant in grains has been researched and studied
widely. Practical application has been limited mostly due to the unknowns
that still exist about this application
Ozone can definitely keep insects from infesting your grain if used all the
time. Low levels of ozone gas (0.1 ppm or below) used at all times will keep
insects out of your grains, and other produce as well. The use of ozone for
food storage and insect control in this manner is proven and successful. In
grains ozone gas can be added to already existing airflow through the grain to
keep insects from damaging your grain.
Once your grain as been infested with insects it is more difficult to eliminate
them. High levels of ozone are required to kill these insects. This is shown in
research done by Purdue University and others. The levels of ozone required
should be scrutinized to ensure this is a cost effective application, and that all
safety precautions are taken.
 
Lethal levels of ozone for all stages of insects
Gaseous ozone (O 3 ) has potential for control of insects in stored grain.
Previous studies have focused on freely exposed insects. Immatures of
internal pests (e.g. Sitophilus spp. and most stages of Rhyzopertha
dominica F.) are protected within kernels and probably require higher doses
and/or longer treatment times for full control. A laboratory study determined
the doses of ozone necessary for full control of freely exposed and internal
stages of eleven stored-product pest species. Test insects were three species
of Sitophilus, R. dominica, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, T.
castaneum Herbst, Plodia interpunctella Hübner, Sitotroga
cerealella Olivier, Oryzaephilus surinamensis L., Ephestia kuehniella Zeller
and Stegobium paniceum L. Insects were exposed to continuous flows of
ozone in doses of 10–135 ppm and exposure times of 5–8 days. Dose-
mortality bioassays were conducted on three species of Sitophilus and P.
interpunctella.
Freely exposed stages (with a few exceptions) were controlled with 35 ppm of
ozone for 6 days. Full mortality of internal stages within kernels required
exposure to 135 ppm for 8 days.
This study confirms that higher doses and/or longer treatment times are
necessary for control of internal stages of stored-product pests.
 
Mold removal in grain
Ozone is proven as a great method to keep mold from growing and killing
mold spored. If used over long periods of time, ozone will also kill mold . As
there may be damage from mold that cannot be reversed, ozone use for this
application should be evaluated carefully to ensure the benefits will still
outweigh the costs.